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After the start of the Roman coinage thanks to the as and his/her based system on the bronze, the expansion of the commerces toward the east and Great Greece imposed the use of coins with greater intrinsic value. The first footstep in such sense was the mintage of the didramma, coin in silver of derivation from the play Greek fret.
The first silver coin derived by the based Roman monetary system on the as was the denarius, with a value equal to 10 aces and a weight of around 4.5 grams (1/72 of a Roman pound). its name, in fact, derives from "deni" that it means "for ten", pointed out by the sign of value X.
Also for the denarius, as for the as, the date of issue is more commonly discussed still among the researchers but the approved temporal position it is in the period of the first two wars puniche (first 264-241 a.Cs., 218-202 a.Cs.), to be able to manage the consistent consequential expenses to the war with the Carthaginian ones.
In the first issues to the astute one the head in Rome was brought with winged helmet and crestato, while to the back the twins of the Dioscuris were represented to horse with the legenda Rome. In following age the subjects were for the tied up to the aristocratic families of the monetary judges as tool of propaganda politics. Toward the end of the republican period, then, the used images were directly those of the principal characters of the Roman public life.
Interesting evolution of the denarius toward the end of the republic is the introduction of the shut one (to shut, that means to saw), that introduced the serrated edges, both to prevent the shearing, that is the removal of metal from the edges of the coin, both to show that the same coin was not produced with a soul of less precious metal.
Because of the progressive diminution of the value of the as, in the 118 a.C. the denarius was revalued then bringing its value to 16 aces, as pointed out straight by XVI on the of the coin; the three letters are written one above to the other, in a monogram that resembles to an asterisco.
As you divide they existed:
|Coin||Ratio with the denarius||Ratio with the as||Mark|
|Denarius||1 denarius||10 as||X|
|Quinario||1/2 denarius||5 as||V|
|Sesterzi||1/4 denarius||2,5 as||IIS subsequently HS|
The quinario had a value equal to 1/2 denariuss or 5 aces and you/he/she was identified by the numeral V
The sesterzio, equal to 1/4 of denarius or 2 aces and 1/2, from which the name "semis tertius"; the used numeral was IIS (II =2 aces and S = 1 semisse), with the "II" subsequently transformed in "H."
It goes, finally also remembered the circulation of the vittoriato in, parallel to that of the denarius. On the base of the silvery content of the vittoriato. (65% of until on a weight of 3,37 gs., therefore with g. 2,19 of silver) in comparison to that of the denarius (g.4,55 with a rate of thin equal to 95-98%, that it brought, therefore, to 4,32 gs. of silver), the intrinsic value of the denarius was, therefore, double of that of the vittoriato. The vittoriato, therefore, had an equivalent value to the quinario, but it was one right of his to be as utilizzar coin in areas of Greek influence as Great Greece.
The denarius will stay for centuries at the base of the Roman coinage, up to that you/he/she was not replaced any antoniniano in halves the III century d. C.. Á. to testify the importance of this coin remains our term money, and also when the denarius was not in cricolazione anymore, as unity of account remained still. Inheritance of the denarius is the use of the letter "d" as abbreviation for the denier of Carlomagno and for the British penny before the 1971 decimalization. Attialmente survives in the countries of Islamic derivation in the coins derived by the ancient gold coin of the dinar.